Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was born in 1881 in the town of Solonniky (the today’s Greece), on the territory of that time the Ottoman Empire. His father — Ali Riza Efendi, mother — Zubeyda Hanim. The father, forest merchant (the former customs official) strove, to give good education to his son The most respectable profession at that time was the military one, therefore the inquisitive young man chose for himself the profession of officer. He graduated from the military school in Solonniky and Monastery (the today’s Bitola, Macedonia), and later finished his education in the Turkish General Headquarters Academy Educated as the European, the military man made acquaintance with the same young officers, dissatisfied with the regime of Abdulkhamid II. The aims of the “Young Turkish” (thus these young military men began to be called) — the liberation from the foreign dependence, industrial development, equality of the nations, the distribution of the achievements of European civilization and others.
First World War
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk recommended himself as a resolute and brave commander on the fronts of the Turkish army in the Trypol War (1911-1912), the Second Balkan War (1913) and especially in the First World War.
In the course of the First World War, which began in 1914, the whole world became the witness of the stubborn opposition of the Turkish army in the battle for Chanakkale, where Mustafa Kemal forced the troops of the Allied Forces to recognize the Dardanelles unapproachable. In the First World War the Ottoman Empire, having conceded the hard defeat, signs the Mondross Truce (1918), according to which the countries of the Allied Forces began to the planned division of the Empire. Mustafa Kemal as the inspector of the 9th army on 19 of May 1919 landed in Samsun — this day is considered as the beginning of the national liberator movement. On 22 of June 1919 in Amasya he promulgated circular, in which he says the following: “The independence of the people will be saved at the will and decision of the people itself”, and also declared the convocation of the deputies for the Sivas Congress. After this Erzurum Congress was held, on which the ways of rescue of the motherland were determined.
On 23 of April 1920 in Ankara Mustafa Kemal Ataturk declared the Great National Meeting of Turkey (GNMT). The Meeting declared itself the government of the country and claimed that that day, when the English occupied istanbul, the power of the sultan stopped to exist .
On 10 of August 1920 the countries-winners of the First World War signed the Sewer Agreement and in fact divided the Ottoman Empire between them.
The Great National Meeting of Turkey created the regular army_ The national liberator war of the Turkish people, which was led under the command of Mustafa Kemal, includes the following stages –
• The liberation of Sarykamysh (20 of September 1920), Kars (30 Of October 1920) and Gyumryu (7 of November 1920).
• The defense of the region of Chukurov, Gaziantep, Kahramanmarash and Shanlyurfa (1919-1920).
• The first victory of lnonu (6-10 of January 1921)
• The second victory of Inonu (23 of March — 1 of April 1921)
• The victory in the battle near Sakarie (23 of August — 13 of September 1921)
• General offensive, the battle under the leadership of commanders-in-chief and the Great victory (26 of August — 9 of September 1922)